Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus from Ethiopia will be the next director general of the World Health Organization, WHO.
He will be the first African to head up the UN agency, after winning the most votes from 186 member states.
He replaces Margaret Chan, who will step down from her 10-year post at the end of June.
During her tenure, the WHO’s response to the Ebola epidemic in West Africa was criticised for being too slow.
The agency was accused of missing key warning signs about the severity of the outbreak that began in December 2013 and ultimately killed more than 11,000 people.
Addressing the World Health Assembly shortly before the vote, Dr Tedros promised to respond to future emergencies rapidly and effectively.
He also promised to stand up for the rights of the poor.
“All roads should lead to universal health coverage. I will not rest until we have met this,” he stated.
About Dr Tedros
Dr Tedros was the Ethiopian minister of health and foreign affairs, chairman of the board of the Global Fund to Fight Aids, TB and Malaria
He is an internationally recognised malaria researcher, with a PhD in community health.
His election was not without controversy.
He has recently been accused of covering up three cholera epidemics in Ethiopia, but his supports say this is untrue.
Ethiopian opposition groups are also critical of Dr Tedros. They accuse the government of human rights abuses and believe that Dr Tedros’ candidacy is an attempt to raise the country’s diplomatic profile.
Dr Tedros said his vision as the new director general was of “a world in which everyone can live healthy and productive lives, regardless of who they are or where they live”.
He told delegates at the World General Assembly that “I promise I will get up every day, determined to make a difference… I am ready to serve.”